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N-1-1 Contingency Analysis to Meet the NERC Compliance Standards


The facility system research completed with the aim of assembly the NERC (North American Electrical Reliability Company) requirements tackle the problem of assessing energy system efficiency, following regular and contingency circumstances. The outcomes of those research should make sure that the transmission system efficiency meets the NERC Reliability Requirements, and that the upgrades to fulfill future system wants are developed such that the dependable and safe operation of the transmission system is maintained.

The Transmission Planning (TPL) requirements outline dependable system efficiency following the lack of a single bulk electrical aspect, two or extra bulk electrical components, or following excessive occasions.

The lack of two components has been traditionally carried out utilizing N-2 contingency evaluation, which corresponds to the lack of two bulk electrical components concurrently.

A forthcoming, extra stringent, NERC TPL customary additionally requires N-1-1 contingency evaluation, which corresponds to the lack of two components consecutively. The system changes must be carried out after the first N 1 contingency, and could also be carried out after the 2nd N-1 contingency in every N-1-1 contingency pair.

There’s a rising want to supply the system planners with quick automated course of to successfully carry out NERC-compliance research. The framework for N 1 1 and N 2 contingency evaluation ought to have the aptitude to carry out the next computations inside one simulation run:

• Establish important contingencies that trigger violation of voltage, thermal and steady-state stability limits;

• Decide transmission system bottlenecks;

• Decide potential cascading modes;

• Compute minimal quantity of mandatory system changes;

• If load shed is required, reduce the quantity of load curtailment so as to keep dependable operation of the facility system;

• Present automated reporting capabilities.

System changes might embrace: MW dispatch, MVAr dispatch, transformer faucet change, section shifter adjustment, capacitor and reactor switching, line switching, and cargo curtailment.

It’s of the utmost significance to make sure that the evaluation framework is predicated on the AC evaluation methodology that enables to observe voltage, thermal and steady-state stability limits.

Since quite a lot of N-1-1 situations could also be applied, the evaluation software must be very versatile so as to be rapidly and simply adjusted to the necessity and specifics of a specific utility or an ISO.

The technique to carry out huge N 1 1 AC contingency ought to deal with offering the Planning engineers with an answer that has the next capabilities:

• Computerized creation of N 1 1 contingency lists;

• Automating the method of N 1 1 contingency evaluation;

• Permitting the consumer to implement varied units of system changes inside a single run;

• Incorporating the evaluation of cascading outages;

• Offering simple and versatile reporting and post-processing in step with the utility/ISO apply.

As well as, this course of must be used to help the planners in optimizing the transmission system enlargement which can cut back the blackout danger and enhance transmission system reliability. Subsequently, the answer ought to have the aptitude to carry out huge contingency evaluation – lots of of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of contingencies – per single run.

For extra particulars on using Bodily and Operational Margins (POM) Suite for N-1-1 contingency evaluation, please go to

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Source by Haad Bajwa
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